គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

 

 

ដោយលោក មាឃ សារី
(បេក្ខជនបណ្ឌិតផ្នែកវិទ្យាសាស្ត្រអប់រំ)
ប្រធានផ្នែកវិទ្យាសាស្រ្តអប់រំ
វិទ្យាស្ថានមនុស្សសាស្រ្ត និង វិទ្យាសាស្រ្តសង្គម

 

សេចក្ដីផ្ដើម

ការផ្ដល់ចំណេះដឹងដល់សិស្សបានជោគជ័យ យើងមានកត្តាជាច្រើន ដែលត្រូវអនុវត្ត​ និង អភិវឌ្ឍ។ ដោយឡែក វិធីបង្រៀនក៏ជាកត្តាសំខាន់​មួយ​ដែលមិនអាចខ្វះបាន។ ការសិក្សាពីវិធីបង្រៀននានា សម្រាប់យកមកបង្រៀន អ្នកអប់រំទាំងអស់ គឺជាអ្នកទទួលយក ​និង ផ្ដល់ដល់អ្នកបង្រៀនអាចអនុវត្តតាម​បាន។​ តាមការសិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវកន្លងមក គឺយើងឃើញមានគោលវិធីបង្រៀនពីរ ទីមួយគឺគោលវិធីគ្រូមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល និង ទីពីរ គឺគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល ដែល​ក្នុងគោលវិធីនីមួយៗ មានវិធីបង្រៀនជាច្រើនស្ថិតនៅក្នុង។ ក្នុងអត្ថបទស្រាវ​ជ្រាវ​នេះ យើងលើកយកតែគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលប៉ុណ្ណោះ មកសិក្សា សម្រាប់ជាប្រទីបបំភ្លឺក្នុងការឈ្វេងយល់ និង ប្រើបាស់គោលវិធីនេះបាន​ត្រឹម​ត្រូវ នៅក្នុងការបង្រៀន ​និង រៀន​របស់លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូ ក៏ដូចជា ការសិក្សា​រៀនសូត្ររបស់សិស្ស។

១ ប្រវត្ដិបញ្ញត្ដិពាក្យ និង ការប្រើពាក្យគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

១.១-ប្រវត្ដិបញ្ញត្ដិនៃពាក្យគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

ដោយសារដំណើរវិវត្ដនៃសង្គមប្រែប្រួលឥតឈប់ឈរ ដូចេ្នះហើយ ទស្សនៈអប់រំក៏ត្រូវស្របទៅនឹងនិន្នាការវិវត្ដនៃសង្គមផងដែរ។ ទិសដៅ និង គោល​បំណងការអប់រំបែបថ្មី ទាមទារឱ្យមានខ្លឹមសារអប់រំ និង វិធីសាស្ដ្រ​បង្រៀន​មានលក្ខណៈប្រាកដនិយម ដែលឆ្លើយតបទៅនឹងជីវិត និង សង្គម​ពិតៗ។ ដូចនេះ ការយល់ដឹងពីបញ្ញតិ្ដ និង ប្រវត្ដិនៃការបង្កើតវិធីបង្រៀន​តាម​បែបគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល គឺជាបង្អែកមួយដ៏រឹងមាំសម្រាប់ការវិភាគ និង ឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងទៅលើការអនុវត្ដគោលវិធីនេះ។ តាមឯកសាររបស់ក្រសួងអប់រំ​បាន​បង្ហាញឱ្យដឹងថា បញ្ញត្ដិពាក្យគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល (Student Centered Approach) «គឺជាលំនាំនៃការបង្រៀន និង រៀន ដោយផ្ដោតទៅ​លើសកម្មភាព​សិស្សជាមូលដ្ឋាន។ នៅក្នុងគោលវិធីនេះ គេទាមទារឱ្យសិស្សមាន​តួនាទីជាអ្នក​ធ្វើសកម្មភាពស្វែងយល់ដឹងដោយខ្លួនឯង ក្រោមដំណឹកនាំរបស់គ្រូ​ សំដៅ​សម្រេចឱ្យបាននូវចំណេះដឹង បំណិន និង អភិវឌ្ឍន៍បុគ្គលិកលក្ខណៈ។ ក្នុង​សកម្មភាពនេះ សិស្សអាចរៀន និង ធ្វើការស្រាវជ្រាវជាបុគ្គល ជាក្រុម ក្រុមរង ក្រុមថ្នាក់ នៅក្នុងថ្នាក់ ឬ ក្រៅថ្នាក់ »[1]។ ការស្រាវជ្រាវឯកសារផេ្សង​ទៀតបាន​បង្ហាញបញ្ញត្ដិនេះថា «គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល គឺជាវិធីបង្រៀនដែលគ្រូជា​អ្នកសម្របសម្រួលការសិក្សារបស់សិស្ស ដោយផ្ដល់រចនាសម្ព័ន្ធ និង ដឹកនាំផ្លូវ​សិស្ស»[2]

១.២-ប្រវត្ដិការប្រើពាក្យគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

តាមការស្រាវជ្រាវបានបង្ហាញឱ្យឃើញថាពាក្យ «អ្នករៀនមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល» (learner centered) «កេ្មងមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល» (child centered) ឬ «សិស្សមជ្ឈ​មណ្ឌល» (student centered)ដែលជាពាក្យបុគ្គលិក សិក្សាអាចប្រើបានដូចគ្នា និង មានន័យ ដូចគ្នា។ ប៉ុន្ដែពាក្យនេះ ប្រើទៅតាមបរិបទផេ្សងគ្នា ដែលថា ជាអ្នកទទួលនូវ ការអប់រំ ជាពិសេស ក្នុងខ្លឹមសាររួមគឺអ្នកសិក្សាធ្វើសកម្មភាពដែល​ផ្ទុយ​ពីទស្សនៈ បែបការអប់រំ បុរាណ ដែលអ្នកសិក្សាជាអ្នកអសកម្ម។ នៅឆ្នាំ១៩៦៥ លោក ស៊ី. រ៉យជ័រស៍ (C. Rogers) ជាអ្នកចិត្ដវិទូជនជាតិអាម៉េរិក ដែលបាន​ប្រើ​ពាក្យ «សិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល» (student centered)មុនគេ [3]

បើយើងសិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវ នៅក្នុងអំឡុងពេលមុនការប្រើប្រាស់ការប្រើ​ពាក្យ​គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលរបស់លោក ស៊ី. រ៉យជ័រស៍ (C. Rogers) គឺ​យើង​ឃើញថា មានការប្រើពាក្យ «ការអប់រំដែលផ្ដោតទៅលើសិស្ស» ដែលត្រូវ​នឹង ភាសាអង់គេ្លសថា «student-centered education» ដែលជាការបញ្ជាក់​បង្ហាញ​ដោយ លោក ដឺវ៉េយ (Dewey)។ លោកក៏បានផ្ដោតអត្ថន័យទៅលើការ​អ​ប់រំ សិស្សថា ការរៀន ឬ ការសិក្សា គឺជាការធ្វើសកម្មភាព «learning by doing» (Ratner ១៩៣៩, ៦៧៤.៧៥)[4]។ ដើម្បីចៀសវាងកុំឱ្យអ្នកអប់រំនៅ កម្ពុជាយើង​មានការច្រឡំទៅលើអត្ថន័យដើមនៃគោលវិធីថ្មីនេះ គឺយើងសូមបកស្រាយ​ពន្យល់ ដោយផ្អែកទៅតាមការស្រាវជ្រាវរកអត្ថន័យនៃពាក្យនេះបន្ថែមទៀត។ ជាការពិត យើងឃើញថាពាក្យ «centered» គឺមកពីពាក្យកិរិយាស័ព្ទ «to center» ហើយក៏មានន័យដូចគ្នានឹងកិរិយាស័ព្ទ «to focus» ឬក៏ ដូចគ្នាទៅនឹង ភាសា​បារាំង​ថា «center» ដែលពាក្យនេះមានអត្ថន័យជាភាសាខ្មែរថា «ផ្ដោតទៅលើ» «ឆ្ពោះទៅលើ» ឬ «ប្រមូលផ្ដុំទៅលើ»។ នៅក្នុងរបៀបនៃការសរសេរ ឬ ការប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ទៅតាមភាសាបារាំងគេត្រូវបន្ថែមពាក្យ «sur» ទៀត គឺសរសេរទៅជា «center sur»។ ហេតុដូចេ្នះ យើងឃើញមានការប្រើពាក្យថា «l’enseignement centré sur l’élève ou l’étudiant» [5]។ ដូចគ្នាទៅនឹងភាសាអង់គេ្លសថា «student-centered education» ដែលមានប្រើដូចខាងលើ។ ដោយសារចរន្ដអប់រំពិភព​លោក​មានការវិវត្ដ ដូចេ្នះ វិធីសាស្ដ្របង្រៀនត្រូវមានការវិវត្ដដូចគ្នាដែរ គឺយើង​ឃើញមានការប្រើពាក្យពី «student-centered education» ទៅជា «student-centered approach» និង ចុងក្រោយនេះ គឺការប្រើពាក្យ ថា «student-centered activity» [6] ដែលមានន័យថា «សកម្មភាពសិក្សាត្រូវប្រមូលផ្ដុំទៅលើសិស្ស» ឬ បើយើងចង់រក្សាទុកនូវពាក្យដដែល «សិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល» ដែលយើងធ្លាប់បាន​ប្រើប្រាស់កន្លងមកនោះ «student-centered activity» គឺមានន័យថា «សកម្មភាព​សិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល»។

ដើម្បីងាយស្រួលក្នុងការប្រើពាក្យ ដែលទាក់ទងទៅនឹងវិធីសាស្ដ្របង្រៀន យើងលើកយកការ ប្រៀបធៀបនៃការអប់រំបែបចាស់ (Anciens) និង ការអប់រំ​បែបទំនើប (Modernes) ដែលមានរៀបរាប់ដូចខាងក្រោម[7]

-ការអប់រំបែបប្រពៃណី (Enseignement traditionnel)           -ការអប់រំបែបថ្មី  (education nouvelle)

-វិធីបង្រៀនបែបប្រពៃណី (Méthodes traditionnelles)         -វិធីថ្មី  (Méthodes nouvelles)

-គរុកោសល្យបែបប្រពៃណី (Pédgogie traditionnelle)          -គរុកោសល្យជឿនលឿន(វឌ្ឍនៈ)

                                                                                                        (Pédgogie progressiste)

-ថ្នាក់រៀនចាស់អសកម្ម (Classes magistrales passives)     -ថ្នាក់រៀនថ្មី សកម្ម  (classe nouvelle active)

-ការអប់រំត្រួតពិនិត្យតឹងតែង (Education autoritaire)       -ការអប់រំបែបសេរី (Education libérale)

-ការបង្រៀនប្រមូលផ្ដុំទៅលើគ្រូ ឬសម្ភារៈ (គ្រូមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល)    -ការបង្រៀនប្រមូលផ្ដុំទៅលើ​សិស្ស

  (Enseignment centré sur le maître et Sur le matière)     (សិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល) (Enseignemnet sur l’élève)

-សាលារៀនបែបបុរាណ និង បើកចំហរ (ecole traditionnlle) -សាលារៀនបែបប្រព័ន្ធឆ្លាស់

                                                                                                         (Ecole alternative, ouverte)

ខាងលើនេះ គ្រាន់តែជាការបង្ហាញពីការប្រែប្រួលនៅក្នុងការអប់រំ ព្រម​ទាំងឈ្មោះវិធីសាស្ដ្រ បង្រៀន ដែលអ្នកអប់រំតាមប្រព័ន្ធបារាំងប្រើប្រាស់។ ប៉ុន្ដែ បើយើងប្រើតាមប្រព័ន្ធបែបអង់គ្លូសាក់សុង គឺគេប្រើពាក្យ (student-centered approach) ដែលត្រូវគ្នានឹងភាសាបារាំងថា (approche centré sur l’élève ou l’étudiant) ដូចយើងបានធ្វើការពន្យល់ដូចខាងលើស្រាប់។

២-លក្ខណៈទូទៅនៃគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

ដោយសារយើងអនុវត្ដគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល ​បានជិត៥ឆ្នាំមក​ហើយ គឺយើងមាននិងបាន ធ្វើការសិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវច្រើនពីវិធីសាស្ដ្រ​បង្រៀន​នេះ ដើម្បីយកទៅប្រើប្រាស់នៅក្នុងការបង្រៀនតាមគ្រប់ភូមិសិក្សា តាមរយៈ​អង្គការអន្ដរជាតិនានា ក៏ដូចជា ក្រសួងអប់រំផ្ទាល់។ ដូចនេះ ដើម្បីងាយស្រួល​ក្នុង​ការ​ធ្វើវិភាគទៅលើលទ្ធផលនៃការស្រាវជ្រាវ និង ម្យ៉ាងទៀតដើម្បីប្រមូល​ផ្ដុំនូវទ្រឹស្ដី និង លក្ខណៈទូទៅ នៃគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល គឺយើងមាន​គោល​បំណងជួយដល់លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូឱ្យបានយល់ដឹង និង ជ្រួតជ្រាបបន្ថែម​ទៀត​ឱ្យកាន់តែស៊ីជម្រៅទៅលើគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល។ ហេតុដូចេ្នះហើយ យើងបានប្រមូលចងក្រងផ្នែកទ្រឹស្ដី និង លក្ខណៈទូទៅនៃគោលវិធីសិស្ស​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល ដោយប្រមូលរួម តាំងពីឯកសារ និង ការស្រាវជ្រាវចងក្រងជា​ភាសា​ខ្មែរ ឬ ភាសាបរទេស ដូចមានរៀបរាប់ខាងក្រោម៖

២.១-គោលបំណងនៃការអនុវត្ដគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

ក្នុងនោះដែរ គោលបំណងនៃការអនុវត្ដគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល គឺ​សំដៅនាំ និង ធ្វើឱ្យសិស្ស មានចំណង់ចំណូលចិត្ដ និង ចាប់អារម្មណ៍​ឱ្យ​បាន​ជាអតិបរមាទៅលើការសិក្សារៀនសូត្រ និង ធ្វើឱ្យសិស្ស មានការអភិវឌ្ឍជា​ប្រចាំនូវចំណេះដឹង និង ចំណេះធ្វើពី១ថ្ងៃទៅ១ថ្ងៃ។ នៅក្នុងថ្នាក់រៀនតាម​បែបសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល សិស្សត្រូវចូលរួមធ្វើសកម្មភាពយ៉ាងសកម្ម​ក្នុងការ​សិក្សា​របស់ខ្លួនដោយខ្លួនឯង ទោះបីជា ក្នុងការចូលរួមធ្វើសកម្មភាពជាក្រុម ឬ ជាបុគ្គលក្ដី។ សិស្សត្រូវយល់ និង ឱ្យតម្លៃខ្លួនឯងថាជាមនុស្សមាន តម្លៃនៅក្នុង​ការរៀនសូត្រក្នុងថ្នាក់ ក៏ដូចជា ក្រៅថ្នាក់។ លើសពីនេះទៅទៀត សិស្សម្នាក់ៗ​ត្រូវតែ​មានសមានចិត្ដ និង មានអារម្មណ៍ថា មានគេចូលចិត្ដ អបអរសាទរ​ចំពោះខ្លួនទាំងទៅលើតម្លៃការសិក្សា និង ទាំងទៅលើតម្លៃសីលធម៌រស់នៅ។ តាមរយៈការពិភាក្សាក្នុងក្រុម សិស្សម្នាក់ៗត្រូវមានសិទ្ធិ និង ត្រូវបានបពោ្ចញ​មតិយោបល់របស់ខ្លួនគ្រប់ៗគ្នា ទោះបីជាគេជាសិស្សអភិវឌ្ឍន៍លឿន ឬជា​សិស្ស​អភិវឌ្ឍន៍យឺតក៏ដោយ។ ការប្រើសិទ្ធិក្នុងការបពោ្ចញមតិយោបល់ នៅក្នុងការ​រៀន​សូត្ររបស់សិស្សម្នាក់ៗ គឺគេត្រូវមានស្មារតីទទួលខុសត្រូវ​ចំពោះការសិក្សា​របស់ខ្លួន។ នៅក្នុងគោលវិធីនេះ សិស្សត្រូវទទួលការហាត់រៀន ការចេះរស់នៅ​ក្នុង​សហគមន៍ និង សហការជាមួយអ្នកដទៃ។ ជួយសិស្សឱ្យបំពេញនូវសេចក្ដី​តម្រូវការនៃចំណង់ចំណូលចិត្ដរបស់ខ្លួន ដោយសារគ្រូជាអ្នកផ្ដល់ឱ្យ។ ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​គោលវិធីនេះ គឺអាចឱ្យសិស្សទទួលការអប់រំសោភ័ណខាងសិល្បៈ ដូរ្យ​តន្ដ្រី អក្សរសិល្ប៍ ធម្មជាតិ ចរិយាសសម្បត្ដិ និង តម្លៃគុណធម៌។ លើសពី​នេះ​ទៅទៀតនោះ គ្រូត្រូវធ្វើឱ្យសិស្សចេះប្រើពេលវេលាឱ្យមានប្រយោជន៍ និង ធ្វើ​ឱ្យ​​មានអន្ដរកម្មរវាងសិស្ស-សិស្ស និង សិស្ស-គ្រូ ដើម្បីបង្កលក្ខណៈឱ្យគ្រូ និង សិស្សពូកែមានឱកាសជួយសិស្សខ្សោយ[8]

២.២- វត្ថុបំណងនៃគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

យោងតាមការស្រាវជ្រាវជាភាសាជាតិមួយចំនួនបានបង្ហាញថា ទ្រឹស្ដី​នៃ​គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល គឺមានវត្ថុបំណងអភិវឌ្ឍចំណេះដឹង​ត្រង់ផ្នែកនៃ​បញ្ញា និង មានការរីកចម្រើនពេញលេញទៅតាម ដំណាក់កាលលូតលាស់​នៃវ័យរបស់គេ។ ក្នុងថ្នាក់រៀន គ្រូត្រូវរៀបចំសកម្មភាពរៀនសូត្ររបស់សិស្សឱ្យ មានភាពរស់រវើក ដោយរួមមានការពិភាក្សាប្ដូរយោបល់ និង ជួយគ្នាក្នុង​ការ​រៀន​សូត្រ ឬ ដោះស្រាយបញ្ហាផេ្សងៗដែលត្រូវសិក្សា តែត្រូវមានការ​ចូលរួម​ពីសកម្មភាពគ្រូ និង សិស្សរួមគ្នាផងដែរ។ ក្នុងការប្រព្រឹត្ដនូវរាល់សកម្មភាព​ទាំងនោះ គ្រូត្រូវធ្វើឱ្យសិស្សប្រើប្រាស់អស់នូវលទ្ធភាព នៃចំណេះដឹងចាស់ ដែល​គេ​មានស្រាប់ និង ទង្វើប្រកបដោយការច្នៃប្រឌិតកម្រិតខ្ពស់។ ការពិភាក្សា ឬ ការធ្វើការងារក្នុងក្រុម គឺសំដៅឱ្យសិស្សម្នាក់ៗទទួលស្គាល់តម្លៃខ្លួនឯង និង សមាជិកដទៃទៀតក្នុងថ្នាក់រៀន ក៏ដូចជា ក្នុងសង្គម។ ការធ្វើការងារជាក្រុម គឺ ជាការបណ្ដុះឱ្យសិស្សចេះប្រើសិទ្ធិរបស់ខ្លួន និង ចេះគោរពសិទ្ធិអ្នកដទៃ ដោយ​ត្រូវធ្វើការពិចារណា ស្ដាប់ ឬ ទទួលនូវការបកស្រាយរបស់អ្នកដទៃ​ដែលនៅ​ក្នុង​ក្រុម ក៏ដូចជា ក្នុងថ្នាក់ទាំងមូល។ ម្យ៉ាងទៀត ការរៀន និង បង្រៀនតាមបែប​សិស្ស​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល គឺធ្វើឱ្យសិស្សមានទម្លាប់រស់នៅ និង ធ្វើការជាក្រុម​សមូហ​ភាពក្នុងសង្គម (ចេះយោគយល់ ចេះអធ្យាស្រ័យគ្នា ចេះអត់ធ្មត់ ចេះទទួល​យក​យោបល់ អ្នកដទៃ និង ចេះពង្រឹងសាមគ្គីភាព បំបាត់អំពើហឹង្សា ដើម្បីរស់នៅ​រួមគ្នាល្អ)។ លើសពីនេះទៅទៀត គឺមានវត្ថុបំណងហ្វឹកហាត់សិស្សឱ្យចេះ​ប្រើ​ពេលវេលា និង កាលៈទេសៈ ឱ្យមានប្រយោជន៍ដល់ខ្លួនឯង ក៏ដូចជា​ប្រយោជន៍​ដល់សង្គមជាតិ[9]

២.៣- លក្ខណៈពិសេសនៃគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

ជាការពិតណាស់ រាល់វិធីសាស្ដ្រនីមួយៗតែងតែមានលក្ខណៈពិសេស​របស់ខ្លួន គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល ក៏មានលក្ខណៈពិសេសរបស់ខ្លួនដែរ ហេតុដូចនេះ ដើម្បីធានាឱ្យការអនុវត្ដគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលមាន​ប្រសិទ្ធ​ភាព គឺគ្រូបង្រៀន និង សាលារៀនត្រូវរៀបចំ និង បំពេញល័ក្ខខ័ណ្ឌចាំបាច់មួយ ចំនួនដែលជាលក្ខណៈពិសេសនៃគោលវិធីនេះ។ នាយកសាលារៀនត្រូវរៀបចំ​ថ្នាក់​រៀន​ឱ្យមានបរិយាកាសគរុកោសល្យសមរម្យ (មានពន្លឺគ្រប់គ្រាន់ មាន​អនាម័យល្អ និង មានការតុបតែងសមរម្យ)។ ក្នុងដំណើរការរៀន និង បង្រៀន គឺលោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូ ត្រូវធ្វើឱ្យថ្នាក់រៀនមានភាពរស់រវើក ពោរពេញទៅដោយ​សកម្ម​ភាព​សិស្ស និង សកម្មភាពគ្រូដែលស្របទៅតាមសមត្ថភាពសិស្សម្នាក់ៗ និង មានការយោគយល់គ្នាទៅវិញទៅមកប្រកបដោយភាតរៈ។ ក្នុងការបង្រៀន​មេរៀន លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូ ត្រូវរៀបចំឱ្យមានសម្ភារៈឧបទេសគ្រប់គ្រាន់ទាំងគ្រូ-ទាំង​សិស្ស ដើម្បីធានាដល់ការប្រើប្រាស់បានងាយស្រួលនៅពេលរៀន និង បង្រៀន។ ក្នុងការរៀបចំធ្វើកិច្ចតែងការបង្រៀន លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូត្រូវយកចិត្ដ​ទុកដាក់លើកម្រិតយល់ដឹងរបស់សិស្សក្នុងថ្នាក់ (មិនងាយពេក មិន​ស្មុគ្រស្មាញ​ពេក) លើវិសេសភាពផ្លូវចិត្ដសិស្ស និង ត្រូវកំណត់វត្ថុបំណងប្រតិបត្ដិ​ជាក់​លាក់​ឱ្យបានច្បាស់លាស់ ដើម្បីកំណត់នៅទិសដៅនៃការបង្រៀន និង រៀនបាន​ត្រឹម​ត្រូវ ចៀសវាងការឈានមិនដល់ទិសដៅនៃការសិក្សា។ ក្នុងការបង្រៀននេះដែរ លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូត្រូវជំរុញសិស្សឱ្យធ្វើសកម្មភាពច្រើនជាងគ្រូ (៧០-៨០%) នៃ ម៉ោងសិក្សា តាមរយៈការពិភាក្សាដោះស្រាយបញ្ហាជាបុគ្គល ឬ ក្រុមតូច-ធំ ដើម្បី​បង្កើនការសិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវដោយសិស្សខ្លួនឯង ក្រោមការដឹកនាំ និង សម្រប​សម្រួលប្រកបដោយភាពបត់បែនពីគ្រូ។ ប្រសិនបើ ការសិក្សាត្រូវដំណើរ​ការរៀបចំពិភាក្សាតាមក្រុម គឺត្រូវរៀបចំឱ្យបានត្រឹមត្រូវ នូវកិច្ចពិភាក្សាសម​ស្រប​ទៅតាមខ្លឹមសារ និង ពេលវេលា ដែលក្នុងនោះ ដែរគ្រូត្រូវផ្ដល់ការណែនាំ​មុន​ដំណើរការពិភាក្សា និង ត្រូវដើរតួជាអ្នកសម្របសម្រួលដល់ដំណើរ​ការ​នេះ។ ក្នុងដំណើរការពិភាក្សា លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូត្រូវទម្លាប់សិស្សឱ្យចេះទទួល​ខុស​ត្រូវ លើគ្រប់សកម្មភាពរបស់ខ្លួន ឬ ក្នុងក្រុមទាំងមូល (ស្វ័យគ្រប់គ្រង​ការងារ)។ នៅក្នុងនោះដែរ គ្រូត្រូវចៀសវាងប្រើប្រាស់ទណ្ឌកម្មផ្លូវកាយ ដើម្បី​ពង្រីកស្មារតី ម្ចាស់ការ និង ពង្រីកសិទ្ធិសេរីភាពក្នុងការបពោ្ចញយោបល់ ពិសេស បំបាត់ការ ភ័យខ្លាចនៅពេលដែលសិស្សមានកំហុស។ ជាងនេះទៅ​ទៀត លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូ ត្រូវតែបង្កើនការលើកទឹកចិត្ដសិស្សគ្រប់ពេលវេលា​ ដើម្បី​បង្កើនទម្នុកចិត្ដ និង ការយោគយល់គ្នារវាងគ្រូ និង សិស្សសំដៅឱ្យដំណើរ​ការ​សិ​ក្សាអាចឈានទៅ ដល់ទិសដៅបានល្អ[10]

២.៤-សញ្ញាណលក្ខណៈនៃគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

ដោយយោលទៅតាមទ្រឹស្ដីនៃអ្នកមាននិន្នាការការអប់រំបែបថ្មី ដែលបាន​ចងក្រងបានជាទ្រឹស្ដីអប់រំ ឬ ការបង្រៀនដែលមានគោលការណ៍ថា ការអប់រំ​ដែលផ្ដោតទៅលើសិស្សឬ «គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល» (l’enseignement centré sur l’élève ou student-centered approach )។ និន្នាការនៃគោលវិធីនេះ គឺជាជំហ៊ានមួយសម្រាប់ឈានទៅរកការពង្រឹងគុណភាពនៃការបង្រៀន ដែល​ធានាបាននូវស្នាដៃសិក្សាល្អរបស់សិស្ស។ លក្ខណៈនៃគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈ​មណ្ឌល​ក្នុងការបង្កើនគុណភាពអប់រំមាន[11]

១-ត្រូវឱ្យសិស្ស សហប្រតិបត្ដិការក្នុងការជ្រើសរើសវត្ថុបំណង​នៃការ​សិក្សា ដែលសកម្មភាពទាំងនោះ គឺជាចំណង់ចំណូលចិត្ដរបស់សិស្ស។ សិស្ស​ត្រូវគិតថា ខ្លួនត្រូវមានការទទួលខុសត្រូវ និង គិតថា ខ្លួនមានចំណង់ចំណូល​ចិត្ដនៅក្នុងការរៀនសូត្រ។ ការយល់ដឹងនូវហេតុផលផេ្សងៗ មិនមែនកើតឡើង ដោយសិប្បនិមិត្ដទេ គឺជាការទាក់ទាញដោយការចង់យល់ដឹង ដែលមានស្រាប់​នៅក្នុងខ្លួនរបស់សិស្ស។

២-សិស្ស ត្រូវមានទំនាក់ទំនងជាមួយលោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូនៅក្នុងលក្ខណៈ​ប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ។ សិស្ស ត្រូវចូលរួមក្នុងការបង្កើតលក្ខន្ដិកៈសិក្សា និង ចូលរួម​អនុវត្ដនូវលក្ខន្ដិកៈនោះដោយខ្លួនគេផ្ទាល់។ ស្ថិតក្នុងកាលៈទេសៈដែលអនុ​គ្រោះ​​ដល់គេ សិស្សមានសិទិ្ធជ្រើសរើសគ្រូ ដែលគេមានចំណូលចិត្ដរៀនជាមួយ។

៣-សិស្សត្រូវមានគំនិតផ្ដួចផ្ដើមសម្បូរបែប និង ជាអ្នកមានចរិតសកម្ម​ក្នុងការងាររៀនសូត្រ។

៤-សិស្សត្រូវជួបជុំគ្នា ដោយឆក់ឱកាសជាអតិបរមា ក្នុងការជួយបង្កើន​

ចំណេះដឹងទៅវិញទៅមកជាដរាប ទាំងនៅក្នុង និង នៅក្រៅសាលា។ ជា​ពិសេស បទពិសោធន៍ថី្មៗរបស់ពួកគេ គឺត្រូវផ្សារភ្ជាប់ ជានិច្ចទៅនឹងចំណេះដឹង​ជាមូលដ្ឋាន។

៥-លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូទាំងអស់ គឺជាប្រភពធនធានដើមរបស់សិស្ស។ គាត់​ត្រូវប្រើមធ្យោបាយ ជាច្រើនបែបយ៉ាងតាមដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបាន និង មានភាព​ងាយស្រួលក្នុងការចូលទៅជិតសិស្ស។ គាត់ត្រូវធ្វើការវិនិច្ឆ័យរកមូលហេតុ​នៃ​បញ្ហាផេ្សងៗរបស់សិស្ស ដែលធ្វ្វើឱ្យមានការជះឥទ្ធិពលដល់ការសិក្សារបស់គេ។ ក្នុងនេះដែរ លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូត្រូវដឹកនាំសិស្សធ្វើការឱ្យបាន​ច្រើនតាមតែ​អាច​ធ្វើ ទៅបាន ដោយមិនមានការបង្ខិតបង្ខំសិស្ស ទោះបីជាការសិក្សា​របស់​សិស្សស្ថិត ជាលក្ខណៈបុគ្គល ឬ ជាក្រុមតូចៗក៏ដោយ។

៦-បច្ចុប្បន្នភាព និង បញ្ហាជីវភាពរស់នៅប្រចាំថ្ងៃក្នុងសង្គម គឺត្រូវ​បញ្ចូល​​ទៅក្នុងសាលារៀន មានន័យថា គ្រូត្រូវបង្រៀនសិស្ស ឬ ប្រាប់សិស្សឱ្យបាន​ដឹង​ពីបញ្ហាផេ្សងៗនៃពិភពខាងក្រៅ។ ព្រោះថា ផ្នែកខ្លះនៃបញ្ហាទាំងនេះ គឺជាបញ្ហា​រួមគ្នារបស់គ្រូ និង សិស្ស។ គ្រូ និង សិស្ស ត្រូវឆ្លាស់តួនាទីគ្នាក្នុងការ​ស្រាវជ្រាវ​រកចម្លើយនៃបញ្ហា។ អន្ដរកម្មរវាងគ្រូ និង សិស្ស គឺជាធាតុមួយយ៉ាងសំខាន់​នៅ​ក្នុងដំណើរការសិក្សាតាមគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលនេះ។

៧-ទីកន្លែងសិក្សា គ្រឿងសង្ហារឹម បរិក្ខារសិក្សា សៀវភៅសិក្សា និង សម្ភារៈ​ឧបទេស ត្រូវរៀបចំ ទុកដាក់ក្នុងល័ក្ខខ័ណ្ឌងាយស្រួល និង អាចយកមក​ប្រើប្រាស់បានទាន់តាមតម្រូវការក្នុងការសិក្សា។

៨-កម្មវិធីសិក្សា និង របៀបនៃការសិក្សា គឺត្រូវរៀបចំឱ្យបាន​សមស្រប​ទៅ​នឹងលក្ខណៈបុគ្គលជាអតិបរមា។ សិស្សនឹងមានការរីកចម្រើនជាលំដាប់ ដោយ​សារ​គេមានលំនាំរៀនដោយខ្លួនគេផ្ទាល់។ ការប្រើប្រាស់ពេលវេលាការបង្រៀន និង រៀនត្រូវមានភាពបត់បែន និង រស់រវើក។ ម្យ៉ាងទៀត រូបភាពផេ្សងៗនៃវិធី​សិក្សាដែលបានស្នើឡើង គឺត្រូវមាន​ការ​ស្នើឱ្យយកវិធីទាំងនោះទៅ​ប្រើប្រាស់​។ ចំពោះការសិក្សាតាម បែបបរ​មានុ​ភាព (mastery learning) ត្រូវបានការលើក​ទឹកចិត្ដ និង ជំរុញឱ្យអនុវត្ដ។

៩-ប្រព័ន្ធរឹងមាំនៃថ្នាក់រៀន ដែលមានគំនិតត្រូវទទួលយកសិស្សដោយ​រើសយកតែសិស្សមានអាយុដូចគ្នាត្រូវបានលុបបំបាត់ គឺមានន័យថា ថ្នាក់រៀន​មួយត្រូវមានការរួមបញ្ចូលគ្នានូវសិស្សដែលមានអាយុផេ្សងៗគ្នា និង សិស្ស​ដែល​មានចំណេះដឹងខុសៗគ្នាផងដែរ។

១០-ការធ្វើការងារនៅក្នុងក្រុមតូច គឺទទួលបានលទ្ធផលជាអតិមរមា ជួនកាលជាការប្រសើរថែមទៀត ដែលត្រូវរៀបចំសមាសភាពសិស្សដែល​មាន​អាយុខុសៗគ្នា។ លក្ខណៈទីទៃពីគ្នានៃសិស្សនៅក្នុងការសិក្សា គឺជានិច្ចកាលធ្វើ​ឱ្យលទ្ធផលសិក្សារបស់សិស្សទទួលបានដោយក្ដីមោទនៈ។

១១-សាលារៀនត្រូវបើកចំហទៅរកពិភពខាងក្រៅ ហើយចំពោះ​លទ្ធផល​សិក្សា គឺត្រូវបានមកជាលក្ខណៈបុគ្គល ដែលសិស្សទទួលបានពីការជួប​ប្រទះ​នៅក្នុងមជ្ឈដ្ឋានសង្គមខាងក្រៅ។ លទ្ធផលនៃការសិក្សា ដែលបានមកពី​មជ្ឈដ្ឋាន​ខាងក្រៅ មានតម្លៃសើ្មនឹងអ្វីដែលគ្រូបានផ្ដល់ដល់គេដែរ។

១២-ការប្រឡងដែលមានលក្ខណៈជាបែបបុរាណ ត្រូវអនុវត្ដតិចតួច​ពិត​មែន តែវិធីបែបបុរាណនេះ ត្រូវបាត់បង់ឥទ្ធិពលក៏ដោយ។ ការវាយតម្លៃដែល​គួរ​ចាប់​អារម្មណ៍ជាងគេ គឺការវាយតម្លៃនៅក្នុងអំឡុងពេលសិក្សា ឬ បណ្ដុះ​បណ្ដាល ដោយមានជំនួយពីវិញ្ញាសាមានលក្ខណៈវិនិច្ឆ័យត្រឹមត្រូវ។ លើសពី​នេះទៀត ស្វ័យរង្វាយតម្លៃទៅលើការសិក្សារបស់សិស្សដោយសិស្សខ្លួនឯង​ ត្រូវ​បានជំរុញ និង លើកទឹកចិត្ដ។ នៅក្នុងការវាយតម្លៃលើស្នាដៃសិក្សា​របស់​សិស្សត្រូវធ្វើឡើងដោយការសងេ្កតផ្ទាល់ និង ទៅលើមូលដ្ឋាននៃ​របាយ​ការណ៍​ខ្លីៗ និង មូលដ្ឋានបដិរូបនៃការងាររបស់សិស្ស។ ការវាយតម្លៃនៅក្នុងគោលវិធី​នេះ គឺត្រូវធ្វើជាប្រចាំរាល់ពេលបង្រៀននីមួយៗ។

២.៥-លក្ខណៈវិនិច្ឆ័យខ្លះៗនៃការអនុវត្ដគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

ដើម្បីឱ្យដឹងថាមានការអនុវត្ដគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល យើងអាច​សងេ្កត​បានតាមលក្ខណៈវិនិច្ឆ័យខ្លះដូចខាងក្រោម៖[12]

«-តួនាទីរបស់គ្រូ ជាអ្នកសម្របសម្រួល» នៅក្នុងតួនាទីនេះលោកគ្រូ-អ្នក​គ្រូត្រូវសម្របសម្រួលឱ្យសិស្ស បានធ្វើការស្រាវជ្រាវ ពិចារណា ស្វែងរក​ចំណេះ​ដឹងដោយខ្លួនឯង សម្របសម្រួលឱ្យសិស្សចេះធ្វ្វើការងាររួមគ្នាក្នុង​គោល​បំណង​ជួយបំពេញចំណេះដឹង ក៏ដូចជា ជួយគ្នាទៅវិញទៅមក នៅក្នុងដំណោះស្រាយ​បញ្ហាផេ្សងៗ។ គ្រូត្រូវសម្របសម្រួល និង រៀបចំសិស្សបានចូលរួមបពោ្ចញមតិ​យោបល់ ឬ ធ្វើការងារឱ្យបានគ្រប់ៗគ្នា និង ចេះវាយតម្លៃលើស្នាដៃរបស់ខ្លួន នៅក្នុងការសិក្សារៀនសូត្រ។

«-តួនាទីសិស្សគឺជាអ្នកធ្វើ» នៅក្នុងន័យនេះ សិស្សត្រូវមានតួនាទីជាអ្នក​ធ្វើសកម្មភាពក្នុងការសិក្សា ស្រាវជ្រាវ ពិចារណា និង ស្វែងយល់នូវចំណេះ​ដឹង​ដោយខ្លួនឯង និង ព្យាយាមធ្វើសកម្មភាពដោយផ្ទាល់ខ្លួន ក្នុងការដោះស្រាយ​បញ្ហា។ សិស្សជាអ្នកធ្វើសកម្មភាពយ៉ាងសកម្ម នៅក្នុងក្រុមពិភាក្សា ទាំងការ​បពោ្ចញមតិ យោបល់ និង ទាំងការបំពេញតួនាទីនីមួយៗរបស់ខ្លួន​នៅក្នុង​ក្រុមការងារ ដើម្បីឈានទៅរកដំណោះ ស្រាយបញ្ហាដែលលោកគ្រូបានដាក់ឱ្យ​អនុវត្ដ និង មានការជួយគ្នាទៅវិញទៅមកប្រកបដោយភាតរៈ។

«-បរិស្ថានសាលារៀន ថ្នាក់រៀនល្អ» ការរៀបចំថ្នាក់រៀន​ក៏ដូចជា សាលា​

រៀនឱ្យបានល្អទៅតាមក្បួនខ្នាតគរុកោសល្យ គឺធ្វើឱ្យសិស្សមានការចាប់អារម្មណ៍​ទៅលើសាលារៀននិងការសិក្សារបស់គេកាន់តែរឹងមាំថែមទៀត។

«-អន្ដរកម្មជាមួយសម្ភារៈឧបទេស អន្ដរកម្មរវាងសិស្សនឹងសិស្ស គ្រូនឹង​សិស្ស» ក្នុងន័យនេះ គឺត្រូវបានរៀបចំឱ្យមានការប្រើប្រាស់់សម្ភារៈ​សមស្រប​ទាំង​គ្រូ-ទាំងសិស្ស ជាពិសេស ទំនាក់ទំនងជាអន្ដររវាងសិស្សទៅគ្រូ និង ពីគ្រូ​ទៅ​សិស្សវិញ ត្រូវបានប្រើប្រាស់ជាអតិបរមាក្នុងការបពោ្ចញយោបល់ និង ការជួយ គ្នាទៅវិញទៅមកក្នុងការរៀនសូត្រ។

«-លទ្ធផលសមេ្រចរបស់ការសិក្សារួមមានចំណេះដឹង បំណិនក្នុងការ​គិត និង សីលធម៌» ការវាយតម្លៃ លើការសិក្សាត្រូវគិតគូររួមទៅ​លើ​លក្ខណៈ​បី​សំខាន់ គឺ ចំណេះដឹង បំណិនក្នុងការគិតខ្ពស់់ និង ប្រកបដោយ សីលធម៌​រស់នៅល្អ ក្នុងសហគមន៍សិស្ស ក៏ដូចជា សង្គមជាតិទាំងមូល។

២.៦-គុណសម្បត្ដិទាំង៥នៃការរៀន និង បង្រៀនតាមបែបសិស្ស​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

នៅក្នុងការអនុវត្ដគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលប្រសិទ្ធភាព ឬ គុណភាព​នៃលទ្ធផលសិក្សា ជាគុណសម្បត្ដិរួមរបស់គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល ដែល​ផ្អែក​លើគោលការណ៍រួមទាំង៥ខាងក្រោម[13]

១-លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូ ត្រូវជួយឱ្យសិស្សបានចូលរួមរៀនសូត្រ ដោយ​ជំរុញ​​ឱ្យសិស្សបង្កើតចំណេះដឹងដោយខ្លួនឯង ធ្វើឱ្យសិស្សយល់ជ្រួតជ្រាប​ពីសារៈ​ប្រយោជន៍នៃចំណេះដឹងសម្រាប់ខ្លួនឯង និង ចេះ ស្រាវជ្រាវរកចំណេះដឹង​ទាំង​នោះមកដោយខ្លួនឯង (self-construct)។

២-លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូ ត្រូវរៀបចំ និង ជួយឱ្យសិស្សមានអន្ដរកម្មជាមួយគ្នា

ដើម្បីជួយជ្រោមជ្រែងក្នុងការចូលរួមរៀនសូត្រ និង ចេះចែករំលែកចំណេះដឹង គំនិត និង បទពិសោធន៍ពីគ្នាទៅវិញទៅមកជាលក្ខណៈវិជ្ជមាន (interaction)។

៣-លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូ ត្រូវជួយសិស្សឱ្យមានតួនាទីចូលរួមនៅក្នុងដំណើរ​ការ​សិក្សារៀនសូត្រ ជាអតិបរិមាដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបាន (participation)។

៤-លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូ ត្រូវជួយឱ្យសិស្សចេះនូវលំនាំនៃការរៀន​សូត្រដោយ​ខ្លួនឯង និង ចេះគួបផ្សំនឹងលទ្ធផលការងាររបស់គេ (process and product)។

៥-លោកគ្រូ-អ្នកគ្រូ ត្រូវជួយឱ្យសិស្សអាចយកចំណេះដឹងដែលគេ​បាន​រៀនរួច ហើយគេអាចយកចំណេះដឹងទាំងនោះ ទៅអនុវត្ដក្នុងល័ក្ខខ័ណ្ឌ​សម​ស្រប​ណាមួយ នៅក្នុងសាលារៀន ក៏ដូចជា នៅក្នុងជីវភាពរស់នៅសង្គមជាតិ​ (application)។

ដោយផ្អែកទៅតាមគុណសម្បត្ដិទាំង៥ខាងលើនេះ គេអាចសងេ្ខប​អត្ថន័យ​នៃខ្លឹមសារជាអក្សរកាត់ ថា CIPPA (construct, interaction, participa-tion, process and application)។

២.៧-គុណសម្បត្ដិរបស់គ្រូក្នុងការបង្រៀនគោលវិធី​សិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

នៅក្នុងគោលវិធីសាស្ដ្របង្រៀននីមួយៗ តែងតែកំណត់នូវតួនាទី និង លក្ខណៈគុណសម្បត្ដិរបស់គ្រូបង្រៀនរៀងៗខ្លួន ទោះបីជាគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈ-​មណ្ឌលក្ដី និង គោលវិធីគ្រូមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលក្ដី។ នៅក្នុងការរៀន និង បង្រៀនតាម​បែបគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល គឺត្រូវបង្ហាញឱ្យឃើញនូវគុណសម្បត្ដិរបស់គ្រូ បង្រៀនមួយចំនួន ដែលអាចនាំឱ្យការអនុវត្ដគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលកាន់​តែ​មានប្រសិទ្ធភាព។

តាមប្រសាសន៍របស់លោក ខូមស៍ (Combs) យល់ថា គ្រូគួរមានលក្ខណៈ​​សំខាន់៦ប្រការ ដូចខាងក្រោម៖

១-ជាអ្នកមានចំណេះដឹងល្អ ដែលរួមមាន ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ ចំណេះ​ដឹង​លើមុខវិជ្ជាឯកទេស និង បំណិនផ្នែកចំណេះដឹងគរុកោសល្យ។

២-ជាអ្នកមានភាពវាងវៃចំពោះអារម្មណ៍របស់សិស្ស និង អ្នករួមការងារ​ជាមួយគ្នា នៅក្នុងការប្រតិបត្ដិការបង្រៀន ក៏ដូចជា នៅក្នុងការងារ។

៣-មានគំនិតទូលំទូលាយ និង ជឿជាក់ថាសិស្សគ្រប់គ្នាមាន​សមត្ថភាព​រៀនសូត្រកេ្របយកចំណេះដឹងថ្មីៗបានពេញលេញដោយខ្លួនឯងបាន។

៤-ជាអ្នកមានអារម្មណ៍លើខ្លួនឯងក្នុងផ្លូវវិជ្ជមាន ដែលនាំទៅរក​ទស្សនៈ​​វិជ្ជាល្អចំពោះអ្នកដទៃ ក៏ដូចជា ចំពោះសិស្ស។

៥-មានជំនឿលើខ្លួនឯងថា អាចជួយជ្រោមជ្រែងឱ្យសិស្សមាន​សកម្ម​ភាព​ ល្អបំផុតតាមដែលគេអាចធ្វើបាននៅក្នុងការរៀនសូត្រ។

៦-ស្គាល់ពីប្រភពគំនិតផេ្សងៗ និង ទ្រឹស្ដីប្រើក្នុងការងាររៀន និង បង្រៀន តាមបែបគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល។

សេចក្ដីសន្និដ្ឋាន

ដូចបានរៀបរាប់ខាងលើ គឺយើងបានឃើញនូវប្រវត្តិនៃការប្រើប្រាស់​ពាក្យ​គោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល និយមន័យ និង លក្ខណៈទូទៅរបស់​គោលវិធី​សិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល ដែលមានលក្ខណៈពិសេសសម្រាប់អ្នកអប់រំ អ្នកស្រាវជ្រាវ ក៏ដូចជា គ្រូបង្រៀនអាចយកទៅសិក្សា និង ឈ្វេងយល់បន្ថែម ដើម្បីជាទុនក្នុង​ការអនុវត្តគោលវិធីនេះ ទៅក្នុងការបង្រៀនដល់សិស្ស នៅកម្រិតសិក្សា។ នៅ​ក្នុងទស្សនាវដ្ដីស្រាវជ្រាវលេខបន្ទាប់ យើងមានបង្ហាញលក្ខណៈពិសេស នៃ​គោល​វិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលនេះបន្ថែមទៀត ព្រមទាំងវិធីបង្រៀនមួយចំនួនដែលស្ថិតនៅក្នុងគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលនេះ។

គន្ថនិទ្ទេស

១-  ក្រសួងអ.យ.ក. ឯកសារសំរាប់វគ្គតំរង់ទិសៈ ការប្រើប្រាស់កម្មវិធីសិក្សា និង សៀវភៅថ្មី​ថ្នាក់ទី៥ ឆ្នាំ២០០០។

២-  ក្រសួងអ.យ.ក.ឯកសារបំប៉ននាយកសាលារៀ៖ បំណិនវិជ្ជាជីវៈមធ្យមសិក្សា​ចំណេះ​ទូទៅ ឆ្នាំ២០០១។

៣- គុណនីងសំជិនតៈនាភ័ក្ដីវង្ស័៖ ដំណកស្រង់បទពិសោធការ និង បង្រៀនបែបគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល

      បកប្រែពីភាសាថៃដោយ៖ ឡុង ផានិត នាយកដ្ឋានមធ្យមសិក្សាចំណេះទូទៅ ឆ្នាំ១៩៩៧។

៤-  Pamela J. Farris, Teaching, Bearing the torch, USA, Brown &Benchmark, 1996.

៥-  Thomas K.Crowl, Sally Kaminsky & David M. Podell, Educational Psychology, USA, Brown

       & Benchmark, 1997. “student-centered teaching: An approach in which the teacher facilitates

       learning by providing structure and guidance“.

៦-  Viviane De Landsheere, L’éducation et la formation, Paris, PUF, 1992.

៧- UNESCO. Secondary Education and Youth at the Crossroads, Bangkok, 1999.

ប្រវត្តិរូបសង្ខេប

Meakh Sara_2018-04-02_08-45-10

១-ប្រវត្តិផ្ទាល់ខ្លួន៖

លោក មាឃ សារី (MEAKH Sary) កើតថ្ងៃទី២៨ ខែសីហា ឆ្នាំ១៩៦៤ នៅភូមិ (មានឪពុកនាម រៀម សារិន ម្តាយនាម យ៉ោក មែន។ រៀបការនៅឆ្នាំ​១៩៨៥ ភរិយានាម អាក់ ឡាវីន មានកូនប្រុសចំនួន២នាក់) មានអាសយដ្ឋាន​លេខ៣១៦ ភូមិចម្ការឪឡឹក១ សង្កាត់កាកាប១ ខ័ណ្ឌពោធិ៍សែនជ័យ រាជធានី​ភ្នំពេញ លេខទូរស័ព្ទទាកើទងលេខ ០១២-៩៨៦-៩៩០ បច្ចុប្បន្នលោកជា​ប្រធាន​ផ្នែកវិទ្យាសាស្រ្តអប់រំ វិទ្យាស្ថានមនុស្សសាស្ត្រ និង វិទ្យាសាស្ត្រសង្គម, រាជបណ្ឌិត្យ​សភាកម្ពុជា មានឋានៈស្មើប្រធាននាកដ្ឋាន។

២-ប្រវត្តិការសិក្សា៖

ឆ្នាំ១៩៩៤-១៩៩៨ សិក្សាថ្នាក់បរិញ្ញាបត្រផ្នែកអប់រំភាសាបារាំង នៅ​សាកលវិទ្យាល័យភូមិន្ទភ្នំពេញ។ ឆ្នាំ ១៩៩៧-១៩៩៨ សិក្សាថ្នាក់បរិញ្ញាបត្រ​ជាន់ខ្ពស់​ផ្នែកកិច្ចការសាធារណៈ (DS)នៃ CCCL រាជធានីភ្នំពេញ។ ឆ្នាំ១៩៩៩-២០០០ សិក្សាថ្នាក់អធិការមធ្យមសិក្សា។ ឆ្នាំ២០០០-២០០២ សិក្សាថ្នាក់ ថ្នាក់​បរិញ្ញាបត្រ​ជាន់ខ្ពស់ផ្នែកវិទ្យាសាស្ត្រអប់រំ នៅរាជបណ្ឌិត្យសភាកម្ពុជា និង បច្ចុប្បន្ន សិក្សាថ្នាក់បណ្ឌិតផ្នែកវិទ្យាសាស្ត្រអប់រំនៅរាជបណ្ឌិត្យសភាកម្ពុជា។

៣-ប្រវត្តិការងារ ៖

ឆ្នាំ១៩៩៨-១៩៩៩ ជាគ្រូបង្រៀនភាសាបារាំងនៅខេត្តតាកែវ។ ឆ្នាំ​១៩៩៩-​២០០០ ជាអធិការនៃអនុវិទ្យាល័យបារាំង ខេត្តតាកែវ។ ឆ្នាំ២០០២-២០១៨ ជាសាស្រ្តាចារ្យ នៅសកលវិទ្យាល័យព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាក្នុងរាជធានី​ភ្នំពេញ។ ឆ្នាំ២០០៣-២០១៨ ជាសាស្ត្រាចារ្យនៅសាកលវិទ្យាល័យ​ឯកទេសនៃ​កម្ពុជា ផ្នែកវិទ្យាសាស្រ្តអប់រំ។ ឆ្នាំ២០១០-២០១៨ ជាសាស្ត្រាចារ្យនៅ​សាកល​វិទ្យាល័យអាស៊ីអឺរ៉ុប។ ឆ្នាំ២០០៣-២០១៤ជាមន្ត្រី និង មន្ត្រីស្រាវជ្រាវនៃរាជ​បណ្ឌិត្យសភាកម្ពុជា និង ឆ្នាំ២០១៤-បច្ចុប្បន្ន ប្រធាន​ផ្នែកវិទ្យាសាស្រ្តអប់រំ វិទ្យាស្ថានមនុស្សសាស្ត្រ និង វិទ្យាសាស្ត្រសង្គម, រាជបណ្ឌិត្យ​សភាកម្ពុជា មាន​ឋានៈ​ស្មើប្រធាននាកដ្ឋាន។

៤-ស្នាដៃស្រាវជ្រាវ និង ចូលរួមក្នុងវេទិកាវិទ្យាសាស្ត្រជាតិ និង អន្តរជាតិ៖

ខែកក្កដាឆ្នាំ២០០៩ បានចូលរួម «សិក្ខាសាលាអន្តរជាតិ ស្តីពី ការប្រែ​ប្រួល​អាកាសធាតុ» នៅទីក្រុងប៉ារីស ប្រទេសបារាំង។ ខែតុលា ឆ្នាំ២០០៩ បាន​ចូលរួម «សិក្ខាសាលាថ្នាក់តំបន់ ស្តីពី ការរស់នៅជាមួយគ្នា​៖ ការបង្វែរ​ការ​បង្រៀនរបស់គ្រូបង្រៀន ដើម្បីពង្រឹងការអប់រំដែលផ្អែកលើសាលារៀន គំនិត​ផ្តួចផ្តើម» នៅឆ្នេរហាឡូន ប្រទេសវៀតណាម។ ខែមិថុនា ឆ្នាំ២០១០ បានចូលរួម «សិក្ខាសាលាអន្តរជាតិ» នៅបាងកក ប្រទេសថៃ។ ខែកុម្ភៈ ឆ្នាំ២០១១ បានចូល​រួម «សិក្ខាសាលាអន្តរជាតិ៖ វេទិកាអាស៊ី-ប៉ាស៊ីហ្វិក ស្តីពី ការអប់រំ កិច្ចសហ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ៖ ភាពស៊ីសង្វាក់គ្នា និង ទំនាក់ទំនងរវាង EFA, ESD និង ASP-net សម្រាប់តំបន់អាស៊ីអាគ្នេយ៍ និង ប៉ាស៊ីហ្វិក» នៅទីក្រុងតូក្យូ ប្រទេសជប៉ុន។ ក្នុងឆ្នាំ២០១៣ បានចូលរួម «សិក្ខាសាលាអន្តរជាតិ » នៅបាងកក ប្រទេសថៃ។ ឆ្នាំ២០១៤ បានចូលរួម «សិក្ខាសាលាអន្តរជាតិស្តីពីការប្រែប្រួលអាកាសធាតុ» ទីក្រុងម៉ានីល ប្រទេសហ្វីលីពីន។ ឆ្នាំ២០១៥ និង ២០១៦ បានចូលរួម «កិច្ចប្រជុំ​តំបន់ (អាស៊ានចិន)» សាកលវិទ្យាល័យហ្វុដាន (Fudan University)សៀងហៃ ប្រទេស​ចិន។ ខែកញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ២០១៦ បានចូលរួម «សន្និសីទអន្តរជាតិលើកទី៤ ស្តីពី ការអភិវឌ្ឍដោយចីរភាព (ICSD)» នៅសាកលវិទ្យាល័យកូឡុំបៀ, ទីក្រុង​ញូវយ៉ក, សហរដ្ឋអាម៉េរិក។ ឆ្នាំ២០១៦ បានចូលរួម «សិក្ខាសាលាអន្ដរជាតិ​ស្តីពី អេសឌី» នៅទីក្រុងប៉េកាំង ប្រទេសចិន។ ឆ្នាំ២០១៧ បានចូលរួមសន្និសីទ «អាស៊ាននៅ៥០៖ ជំពូកថ្មីសម្រាប់ទំនាក់ទំនងអាស៊ាន-ចិន» នៅប្រទេស​ឥណ្ឌូ​ណេស៊ី។ ឆ្នាំ២០១៨ បានចូលរូមក្នុង «ពិព័រណ៍អប់រំ/បណ្តុះបណ្តាលវិជ្ជាជីវៈ​ចិន-​អាស៊ាន១០-១៣» នៅទៅក្រុងណាននីង ប្រទេសចិន, ចូលរួម «វេទិកា​សៀង​ហៃ (អាស៊ានចិន)» នៅសាកលវិទ្យាល័យហ្វុដាន (Fudan University) ​ទីក្រុង​សៀងហៃ និង បានចូលរួម «វេទិកាវូហាន (អាស៊ានចិន)» នៅសាកល​វិទ្យាល័យ​វូហាន ប្រទេសចិន។

[1] ក្រសួងអ.យ.ក. ឯកសារសំរាប់វគ្គតំរង់ទិសៈ ការប្រើប្រាស់កម្មវិធីសិក្សា និងសៀវភៅថ្មី​ថ្នាក់ទី៥ ឆ្នាំ២០០០ ទំព័រទី២៧។

[2] Thomas K.Crowl, Sally Kaminsky & David M. Podell, Educational Psychology, USA, Brown & Benchmark, 1997, p. 402. “student-centered teaching: An approach in which the teacher facilitates learning by providing structure and guidance“.

[3] គុណនីងសំជិនតៈនាភ័ក្ដីវង្ស័៖ ដំណកស្រង់បទពិសោធការ និងបង្រៀនបែបគោលវិធីសិស្សមជ្ឈមណ្ឌល បកប្រែពីភាសាថៃដោយ៖ ឡុង ផានិត នាយកដ្ឋានមធ្យមសិក្សាចំណេះទូទៅ ឆ្នាំ១៩៩៧ ទំព័រទី៤។

[4] Cf. Pamela J. Farris, Teaching, Bearing the torch, USA, Brown &Benchmark, 1996, p.

[5] ការប្រើពាក្យ (L’enseignement centré sur l’élève) នេះ គឺស្ថិតនៅសៀវភៅរបស់ Viviane De Landsheere, L’éducation et la formation, Paris, PUF, 1992, p.153.

[6] ការប្រពាក្យនេះគឺស្ថិតនៅក្នុង Richard D. KELLOUGH/ Nore G. KELLOUGH p. 358.

[7] Cf. Viviane De Landsheere, L’éducation et la formation, Paris, PUF, 1992, p. 124.

[8] ក្រសួងអ.យ.ក. ការប្រើប្រាស់កម្មវិធីសិក្សា និងសៀវភៅថ្មី​ថ្នាក់ទី៥ ដ.ឯ.ម. ទំព័រទី១៨។

[9] សូមមើល ក្រសួងអ.យ.ក.ឯកសារបំប៉ននាយកសាលារៀនៈ បំណិនវិជ្ជាជីវៈមធ្យមសិក្សាចំណេះទូទៅ ឆ្នាំ២០០១ ទំព័រទី៧០។

[10] សូមមើល ក្រសួងអ.យ.ក.ឯកសារបំប៉ននាយកសាលារៀនៈ ​ ដ.ឯ.ម. ឆ្នាំ២០០១ ទំព័រទី៧១។

[11] Cf. Viviane De Landsheere, L’éducation et la formation, Paris, PUF, 1992, p. 127-128.

[12] Cf. UNESCO. Secondary Education and Youth at the Crossroads, Bangkok, 1999, p. 127- 128.

[13] សូមមើល គុណនីងសំជិនតៈនាភ័ក្ដីវង្ស័៖ ដ.ឯ.ម.ទំព័រទី១៩។

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